The last few decades have been plagued by viral outbreaks that present some of the biggest challenges to public safety. The current coronavirus (COVID-19) disease pandemic has exponentiated these concerns. Increased research on diagnostic tools is currently being implemented in order to assist with rapid identification of the virus, as mass diagnosis and containment is the best way to prevent the outbreak of the virus. Accordingly, there is a growing urgency to establish a point-of-care device for the rapid detection of coronavirus to prevent subsequent spread. This device needs to be sensitive, selective, and exhibit rapid diagnostic capabilities. Electrochemical biosensors have demonstrated these traits and, hence, serve as promising candidates for the detection of viruses. This review summarizes the designs and features of electrochemical biosensors developed for some past and current pandemic or epidemic viruses, including influenza, HIV, Ebola, and Zika. Alongside the design, this review also discusses the detection principles, fabrication techniques, and applications of the biosensors. Finally, research and perspective of biosensors as potential detection tools for the rapid identification of SARS-CoV-2 is discussed.