Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with declining physical function and activity. In the general population, lower physical activity is associated with poorer quality of life and greater all-cause mortality. The aim of this study was to assess if lower physical activity levels are associated with adverse health outcomes in patients with advanced CKD.
A multi-center prospective cohort study.
579 adult patients with CKD Stages G4-G5 treated at four Canadian multidisciplinary kidney health clinics between 2012 and 2018.
Patient-reported measures of physical activity using the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) questionnaire and subsequently stratified PASE scores into tertiles.
All-cause mortality, progression to kidney failure, and future falls.
Outcomes were analyzed using time-dependent proportional hazards models and logistic regression models.
In 1193 days of follow up, 118 patients died, 204 progressed to dialysis, and 129 reported a fall. When compared to low physical activity, higher levels of physical activity were associated with a 52% lower all-cause mortality (adjusted HR 0.48, 95% CI 0.27-0.85) in models adjusted for age, sex, and comorbidity. No associations were detected between higher levels of physical activity and either slower progression to kidney failure or a lower rate of future falls.
Physical activity and falls were self-reported. Our population was largely Caucasian which may limit generalizability. Findings were observational and do not indicate whether interventions targeting physical activity may affect adverse health outcomes.
Higher levels of physical activity were associated with about 50% lower all-cause mortality in the advanced CKD population. These findings are consistent with a potential benefit from maintained physical activity as patients approach kidney failure.