Primary central nervous system (CNS) posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is a very rare entity. Patients may respond to reduction of immunosuppression or other therapies, but the prognosis is still pessimistic.
Herein, we report a 40-year-old female with a history of renal transplantation developed brain masses 4 years ago. Although brain biopsy was performed, PTLD was underdiagnosed then. No relevant treatment was administered. However, the lesions resolved spontaneously. After 4 years, new lesion appeared in a different brain region.
The history of renal transplantation raised the suspicion of PTLD. Reexamination of previous brain sections confirmed the diagnosis of polymorphic PTLD (P-PTLD). A second biopsy of the new lesion also demonstrated P-PTLD.
She was referred to hematology department to receive rituximab.
After 4 rounds of treatment, the lesion resolved satisfactorily.
This case demonstrates the natural history of primary CNS P-PTLD. Although self-remission and recurrence is possible, aggressive measures should be taken to this condition.