Considered to be one of the most important non-contagious systemic diseases worldwide, diabetes mellitus is still a topical issue on the health agenda with the problems it causes. Exposure to long-term hyperglycemia causes diabetic complications (diabetic neuropathy, nephropathy and retinopathy). The optic nerve can suffer damage by both diabetic retinopathy and neuropathy during diabetes, both because it is formed by axons of retinal ganglion cells and these axons belong to the central nervous system. The issue of hyperglycemia on the optic nerve have been described as diabetic papillopathy, posterior ischemic optic neuropathy, nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and optic atrophy in clinical studies. Experimental studies indicated axon-myelin degeneration in addition to microvascular and ultrastructural changes caused by the hyperglycemia-induced optic nerve damage. Although there are several proposed biochemical mechanisms to cause these damages, oxidative stress emerges as an important factor among them. Oxidative stress leads to pathological state on the nerve cells by affecting the DNA, protein and lipids at different levels. These are causing deterioration on nerve conduction velocity, myelin sheath and nerve structure, neurotrophic support system, glial cells and nerve function. Curcumin, as an important antioxidant, can be an ideal prophylactic agent to eliminate damages on optic nerve. Curcumin helps to regulate the balance of antioxidant and reactive oxygen species by targeting various molecules (NF-κB, STAT3, MAPK, Mfn2, Nrf2, pro-inflammatory cytokines). In addition, it shows healing or preventive effects on myelin sheath damage via regulating ferritin protein in oligodendrocytes. It is also effective in preventing neurovascular damage.