Vanadium has been reported to possess relevant therapeutic properties such as anti-diabetic and anti-tumoral. This study aimed at determining the effects of vanadium on experimentally induced colitis in rats.
Forty-five male Wistar rats (103 ± 3.90 g, n=15) were used for this study and were divided into three groups. Group 1 (Untreated control) had nothing added to their drinking, while groups 2 and 3 received sodium metavanadate at a dose of 50 and 200 mg/L respectively in their drinking water for 10 weeks. Colitis was thereafter induced by intra colonic administration of 1.50 mL of 6% acetic acid. Animals were sacrificed on day 0 (pre-induction), three- and seven-days post induction. Blood samples were collected for haematological variables and the distal 8 cm of the colon was collected for macroscopic, histological and biochemical (malondialdehyde-MDA, superoxide dismutase-SOD, catalase-CAT, glutathione peroxidase- GPx and nitrite concentration- NO) assessment.
Low dose vanadium proved beneficial in ameliorating acetic acid-induced colitis by improving both histopathological and haematological changes. Gross observation showed a faster healing rate in vanadium treated groups (50 and 200 mg/L) compared with untreated control at day 3 (40 and 26.20 vs. 2.50%) and day 7 (80 and 66.70 vs. 42%) respectively. Vanadium also appears to exert its beneficial effects on acetic acid-induced colitis via up regulation of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GPx) and NO while decreasing the over production of MDA.
Vanadium at small concentration functions as an essential trace element and may be able to promote healing process during ulcerative colitis.