COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 is an ongoing global pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 affects the human respiratory tract’s epithelial cells, leading to a proinflammatory cytokine storm and chronic lung inflammation. With numerous patients dying daily, a vaccine and specific antiviral drug regimens are being explored. Probiotics are live microorganisms with proven beneficial effects on human health. While probiotics as nutritional supplements are long practiced in different cuisines across various countries, the emerging scientific evidence supports the antiviral and general immune-strengthening health effects of the probiotics. Here, we present an overview of the experimental studies published in the last 10 years that provide a scientific basis for unexplored probiotics as a preventive approach to respiratory viral infections. Based on collated insights from these experimental data, we identify promising microbial strains that may serve as lead prophylactic and immune-boosting probiotics in COVID-19 management.