To examine the impact of adolescent pregnancy on maternal and infant health on the basis of studies conducted in Turkey.
Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of cross-sectional and case-control. A systematic scan was performed in January 2020 based on the keywords “adolescent pregnancy or teenage pregnancy and Turkey” in the electronic databases PubMed, Clinical Key, Science Direct, Web of Science, Google Scholar, National Thesis Center, DergiPark, Ulakbim, Turkish Medline and Turkish Clinics. Two of the authors carried out a scan independently of each other, making a selection of articles, performing data extraction and quality assessment procedures under the supervision of the senior researcher.
The results of a total of 38 studies, of which twenty-three were cross-sectional and 15 were case-control, were compiled for the meta-analysis (adolescents: 20,768; control: 59,481). The results of the meta-analysis showed that the more common effects of adolescent pregnancies were preterm birth (OR: 2.12, p < 0.001), early membrane rupture (OR: 1.49, p < 0.001), anemia (OR: 2.60, p < 0.001), low birthweight/intrauterine growth retardation (OR: 2.06, p < 0.001), and fetal distress (OR: 1.78, p = 0.003). On the other hand, it was observed in the meta-analysis that childbirth by cesarean section (OR: 0.70, p < 0.001), gestational diabetes (OR: 0.35, p < 0.001), placenta previa (OR: 0.52, p = 0.01), polyhydramnios (OR: 0.52, p = 0.04) and macrosomia (OR: 0.54, p < 0.001) were less common among adolescents compared to adults.
Our review revealed that adolescent pregnancy had an adverse impact on maternal and infant health in terms of preterm childbirth, early membrane rupture, anemia, low birthweight/intrauterine growth retardation, low Apgar scores and fetal distress.