Pyogenic liver abscess is important cause of hospitalization and life threatening disease in low-middle income countries. Clinical spectrum of ruptured GFPLA can mimic hollow viscus perforation as it usually accompanied by pneumoperitoneum and peritonitis.
We reported here a case with pneumoperitoneum caused by ruptured liver abscess in a 27-year-old man with a history of uncontrolled type II diabetes mellitus. He had an abdominal pain, distension of abdomen associated with a high fever. Patient was diagnosed peritonitis and pneumoperitoneum presumed to be secondary to perforation of a hollow viscus and subjected to emergency laparotomy. We did not find any gastrointestinal perforation. Surprisingly, we detected a ruptured liver abscess in the right lobe of the liver.. The patient was in septic shock and hence shifted to ICU with inotropic support. Antibiotic therapy was started according to pus culture sensitivity. Even with the above treatment patient was not improved and on 4th postoperative day the patient collapsed and declared dead.
Pneumoperitoneum secondary to ruptured gas containing pyogenic liver abscess is rare and could represent as life threatening infection. It should be distinguished from perforation of hollow organ by clinical symptoms and image examinations, particularly like CT. Accurate diagnosis with adequate drainage and antibiotic therapy would bring good outcome.
We are aware that not every case of pneumoperitoneum is attributable to a perforated hollow viscus. A rapid and prompt surgical intervention with appropriate antibiotics are essential to save a life.

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