Clinico-pathological high-risk features are frequently utilized in adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) decisions in stage II colorectal cancer and their utility in stage II appendiceal adenocarcinoma (AA) is not established. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of high-risk features in clinical outcomes and whether high risk features are predictive of AC benefit in stage II AA.
Patients with pathological stage II AA between 2010 and 2015 were identified from the National Cancer Database (NCDB) using ICD-O-3 morphology and topography codes: 8140, 8480 and C18.1. High risk stage II AA was defined as having at least one of the following clinicopathological features: T4 tumor, <12 lymph nodes examined, poorly differentiated histology, positive margins, or lymphovascular invasion. Patients with none of these features were defined as low-risk.
A total of 1040 patients with pathological stage II AA were identified. 51.0% males, 84.5% Caucasian; median age 61 (range, 19-90). 46.4% were determined to have high-risk stage II AA. High-risk status was associated with worse OS compared to low-risk in univariate (HR 1.55; 95% CI 1.18-2.02; p = 0.001) and multivariable analyses (HR 1.36; 95% CI 1.03-1.79; p = 0.028). High-risk stage II AA patients had significantly worse 5-year OS compared to low-risk patients (67.1% vs. 74.5%, p = 0.0013). AC was administered in 34.4% (n = 166) of high-risk patients and in 36.5% (n = 203) of low-risk patients. Among high-risk patients, AC was not associated with better OS in univariate (HR 0.86; 95% CI 0.59-1.26; p = 0.448) and multivariable analyses (HR 1.35; 95% CI 0.90-2.04; p = 0.151) compared to no AC. Similarly, among low-risk patients, AC was not associated with better OS in univariate (HR 0.92; 95% CI 0.60-1.39; p = 0.679) and multivariable analyses (HR 1.27; 95% CI 0.81-2.02; p = 0.299) compared to no AC. For high-risk patients, 5-year OS was 68.3% in patients that received AC vs. 66.5% in patients that did not (p = 0.722). For low-risk patients, 5-year OS was 74.0% in patients that received AC vs. 76.3% in patients that did not (p = 0.813).
High-risk stage II AA patients had significantly worse 5-year OS compared to low-risk patients. AC did not improve survival regardless of high-risk features in stage II AA in this retrospective study. A prospective randomized clinical trial would be required to determine the impact of high-risk features on AC in stage II AA.