Curcumin derivatives have been shown to inhibit replication of human influenza A viruses (IAVs). However, it is not clear whether curcumin and its derivatives can inhibit neuraminidase (NA) of influenza virus. In this study, a meaningful 3D quantitative structure-activity relationship model (comparative molecular field analysis R = 0.997, q = 0.527, s = 0.064, F = 282.663) was built to understand the chemical-biological interactions between their activities and neuraminidase. Molecular docking was used to predict binding models between curcumin derivatives and neuraminidase. Real-time polymerase chain reactions showed that the five active curcumin derivatives might have direct effects on viral particle infectivity in H1N1-infected lung epithelial (MDCK) cells. Neuraminidase activation assay showed that five active curcumin derivatives decreased H1N1-induced neuraminidase activation in MDCK cells. Indirect immunofluorescence assay indicated that two active curcumin derivatives (tetramethylcurcumin and curcumin) down-regulated the nucleoprotein expression. Curcumin inhibited IAV in vivo. The therapeutic mechanism of curcumin in the treatment of influenza viral pneumonia is related to improving the immune function of infected mice and regulating secretion of tumor necrosis-α, interleukin-6, and interferon-γ. These results indicate that curcumin derivatives inhibit IAV by blocking neuraminidase in the cellular model and curcumin also has anti-IAV activity in the animal model.