Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major clinical issue leading to substantial reductions in the intracellular levels of anticancer drugs. To overcome MDR, stimulus-responsive polymeric nanotherapeutics that facilitate drug release and cellular uptake at target sites have emerged as promising tools for safe and effective cancer treatment. Among these nanotherapeutics, reactive oxygen species (ROS)-responsive nanocapsules are ideal carriers, as abnormally increased ROS levels can drive controlled drug release at target sites. In this study, we developed novel, high ROS-responsive carboxylated ferrocene nanocapsules (CFNCs) using solvents of different polarities for effective multidrug-resistant cancer therapy. The CFNCs were prepared via the self-assembly of an amphiphilic carboxylated ferrocene polymer composed of a hydrophilic COOH segment and a hydrophobic ferrocenylmethyl methacrylate segment possessing a ROS-responsive group. The size and ROS sensitivity of self-assembled CFNCs could be controlled by using solvents of different polarities during the simple nanoprecipitation process. The CFNCs showed a high loading content (approximately 30 wt%) and on-demand release of paclitaxel under both normal and tumor-mimicking conditions, and exhibited synergistic anticancer effects in multidrug-resistant colorectal cancer cells (HCT-15). Our findings suggest that CFNCs can be applied as carriers for effective cancer therapy.