Oncogenic osteomalacia (Onc-Ost) is a paraneoplastic phenomenon characterized by hypophosphatemia due to elevated fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23). Onc-Ost has been previously reported in patients with germ line mesenchymal tumors and solid organ malignancies. This is the first report of aggressive natural killer (NK) T-cell lymphoma presenting as Onc-Ost.
A 33-year-old Vietnamese female with active hepatitis B and Mycobacterium avium complex, on ongoing therapy with tenofovir disoproxil, azithromycin, and ethambutol, presented with persistent fevers and developed refractory hypophosphatemia. Workup confirmed severe renal phosphate wasting. Tenofovir disoproxil was initially suspected; however, presence of isolated phosphaturia without Fanconi syndrome and persistence of hypophosphatemia despite discontinuation of medication led to clinical suspicion of Onc-Ost. Elevated FGF-23 warranted further workup, leading to a definitive diagnosis of clinically subtle NK T-cell lymphoma. Chemotherapy was initiated; however, patient continued to deteriorate clinically and expired.
Along with commonly reported germ line mesenchymal tumors and solid malignancies, NK T-cell lymphoma can also present as Onc-Ost. Timely detection of associated tumors and subsequent antitumor therapy would likely reverse hypophosphatemia and improve clinical outcomes.

© 2021 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.