MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are single-strand endogenous and non-coding RNA molecules with a length of about 22 nucleotides, which regulate genes expression, through modulating the translation and stability of their target mRNAs. miR-146a is one of the most studied miRNAs, due to its central role in immune system homeostasis and control of the innate and acquired immune responses. Accordingly, abnormal expression or function of miR-146a results in the incidence and progression of immune and non-immune inflammatory diseases. Its deregulated expression pattern and inefficient function have been reported in a wide spectrum of these illnesses. Based on the existing evidence, this miRNA qualifies as an ideal biomarker for diagnosis, prognosis, and activity evaluation of immune and non-immune inflammatory disorders. Moreover, much attention has recently been paid to therapeutic potential of miR-146a and several researchers have assessed the effects of different drugs on expression and function of this miRNA at diverse experimental, animal, besides human levels, reporting motivating results in the treatment of the diseases. Here, in this comprehensive review, we provide an overview of miR-146a role in the pathogenesis and progression of several immune and non-immune inflammatory diseases such as Rheumatoid arthritis, Systemic lupus erythematosus, Inflammatory bowel disease, Multiple sclerosis, Psoriasis, Graves’ disease, Atherosclerosis, Hepatitis, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, etc., discuss about its eligibility for being a desirable biomarker for these disorders, and also highlight its therapeutic potential. Understanding these mechanisms underlies the selecting and designing the proper therapeutic targets and medications, which eventually facilitate the treatment process.Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier B.V.