Drug discovery efforts targeting G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have succeeded in developing multiple medications for treating various human diseases including cancer, metabolic disorders, and inflammatory disorders. These medications are broadly classified as either agonists or antagonists that respectively promote or inhibit receptor activation by endogenous stimuli. However, there has been a growing appreciation that GPCR biased signaling between G protein- and β-arrestin-dependent signaling in particular is a promising method for improving drug efficacy and therapy. Orexin receptor 1 (OX1R), a member of the GPCRs, is an important drug target in the central nervous system. In this study, we identified a novel regulatory phosphorylation site (Ser-262) on OX1R that abolished its capability to interact with GRK2, but did not affect its interaction with G proteins, GRK5, or β-arrestin1/2 activation, indicating that Ser-262 is a key amino acid for OX1R internalization that contributes to induction of GRK2-dependent biased signaling via orexin A. Our findings could potentially lead to the development of new drug targets for the prevention and treatment of insomnia, narcolepsy, and substance abuse, with fewer side effects than existing therapies.
Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier Inc.