After surgery, acute pain is still managed insufficiently and may lead to short- and long-term complications including chronic postsurgical pain and an increased prescription of opioids. Thus, identifying new targets specifically implicated in postoperative pain is of utmost importance to develop effective and non-addictive analgesics. Here, we employed an integrated and multimethod workflow to reveal unprecedented insights into proteome dynamics in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of mice after plantar incision (INC). Based on a detailed characterization of INC-associated pain-related behavior profiles, including a novel paradigm for non-evoked pain (NEP), we performed quantitative mass-spectrometry-based proteomics in DRG 1 day after INC. Our data revealed a hitherto unknown INC-regulated protein signature in DRG with changes in distinct proteins and cellular signaling pathways. In particular, we show the differential regulation of 44 protein candidates, many of which are annotated with pathways related to immune and inflammatory responses such as MAPK/ERK signaling. Subsequent orthogonal assays comprised multiplex western blotting, bioinformatic protein network analysis, and immunolabeling in independent mouse cohorts to validate (i) the INC-induced regulation of immune/inflammatory pathways and (ii) the high priority candidate Annexin A1 (Anxa1). Taken together, our results propose novel potential targets in the context of incision and, therefore, represent a highly valuable resource for further mechanistic and translational studies of postoperative pain.