Resveratrol, a naturally synthesized polyphenolic compound found in some fruits, has anti neoplastic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-angiogenic properties. Angiogenesis is an important process in endometriosis which provides blood supply for implantation, proliferation and survival of endometriotic lesions. In this study, we assessed the effects of resveratrol on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) expression in the eutopic endometrium of infertile patients with endometriosis within the window of implantation as a randomized exploratory trial. Subjects, who confirmed their endometriosis (stage III-IV) by a pathologist after laparoscopic surgery, were recruited to the present trial. A total of 34 patients were randomly divided into treatment (n = 17) and control (n = 17) groups, beside the routine protocol for treatment of endometriosis, they received resveratrol and placebo (400 mg) for 12-14 weeks, respectively. Endometrial tissue was collected from both groups before and after the intervention in the mid-secretory phase. Gene and protein expression levels of VEGF and TNF-α in the eutopic endometrium were assessed by Real-Time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. VEGF and TNF-α gene and protein levels in the treatment group showed significant decrease following intervention. It seems resveratrol may improve the endometrium of endometriosis patients in window of implantation period by modifying the expression of VEGF and TNF-α but further investigations are needed to reveal the potential role of this compound.
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