Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is known to lead not only to severe acute respiratory syndrome, but also can result in thromboembolic events in both the venous and the arterial circulation by inducing coagulation disorders. The potential causes of coagulopathy are inflammation, platelet activation, endothelial dysfunction, and stasis. The thrombotic events including pulmonary embolism, deep venous thrombosis as well as intracatheter thrombosis are more likely to develop in patients infected with severe form of SARS-CoV-2 who are admitted to ICU. Furthermore, these events contribute to multi-organ failure.
Herein, we report a case of an immunocompromised COVID-19 elderly patient with acute lymphocytic leukemia who developed myocardial infarction with ST elevation in the setting of acute pulmonary thromboembolism in the presence of zero platelet count. Despite successful urgent coronary revascularization and platelet transfusion, the patient eventually died after failed resuscitation efforts.
Patients with COVID-19 infection are at a greater risk of developing cardiovascular complications, but their appropriate management can decrease the risk of fatal events. Coronary thrombosis associated with pulmonary thromboembolism in the setting of thrombocytopenia is a rare and a complex to manage condition. Significance of single antiplatelet agent in STEMI with thrombocytopenia merits further studies. According to expert opinions and literature reviews, we must avoid dual antiplatelet therapy in these patients and keep platelet transfusion as a standard therapy to avoid drastic bleeding complications.