Bipolar disorder (BD)-mania is related to the dysfunction of anterior pituitary gland, but the pituitary-thyroid interaction on the acute stage of BD has been controversial. In order to rule out the effects of drugs, we aimed to determine the upstream interaction of first-episode of BD type I in mania state, and tried to find the relationship between thyroid-stimulating-hormone (TSH) and Prolactin (PRL)This study included 70 real-world patients diagnosed with first-episode BD-mania recuited and 70 healthy controls (HC) matched for age and sex from 2016 to 2017 in the same district of Shanghai. We compared the levels of thyroid hormones and prolactin between the two groups, and linear regression and curve estimation were used for the correlation analysis of TSH and PRLThere were differences in triiodothyronine (TT3), total thyroxin (TT4), and free thyroxine (FT4) concentrations between the groups (P’s < .05). After being grouped by sex, higher PRL in the male and female BD-mania subgroup were observed compared to each isosexual HC [(P's < .01, Cohen's d = 0.82/1.08, 95%CI (0.33, 1.31)/(0.58, 1.58)]. Higher FT4 in the male BD-mania group was observed compared to the HC males [(P's  < .01, Cohen's d = 0.90, 95%CI (0.41, 1.39)] while the female BD-mania group showed lower TT3 and TT4 compared to the HC females [(P's  < .01, Cohen's d = 0.93/0.88, 95%CI (0.43, 1.42)/(0.39, 1.37)]. In the female BD-mania group, correlation analysis established an inverse relationship between PRL and TSH (r2 = 0.25, F = 11.11, P < .01).The findings demonstrate that sex impacts the concentration of hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary of patients with first-episode BD-mania. The increased PRL may be a putative mechanism that underlies the onset in female patients with a moderate inverse relationship between TSH and PRL. Thyroid hormones and prolactin levels may be developed as potential markers for identifying BD-manic.