Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) are important for assessing respiratory function in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. However, weakness of oral and glottal closure, due to concomitant bulbar dysfunction, may result in unreliable PFT values stemming from leakage of air around the breathing tube and through the glottis. In this study, we assessed whether standard thoracic electrical impedance tomography (EIT) could serve as a surrogate measure for PFTs.
Thoracic EIT was performed simultaneously with standard PFTs on 7 ALS patients without clinical bulbar weakness (6 men and 1 woman, mean age of 63 years) and 10 healthy volunteers (7 men and 3 women, mean age of 57 years). A raw impedance metric along with more standard EIT measures were computed and correlated with the normalized forced vital capacity (FVC). Additionally, test/re-test metrics and EIT images were analyzed.
The impedance metric was found to be robust and sensitive to lung activity. We also identified qualitative EIT differences between healthy volunteers and ALS patients, with the ALS images showing greater heterogeneity. Significant correlations with FVC were found for both impedance and EIT metrics in ALS patients (r2 = 0.89) and for the impedance metric only in healthy volunteers (r2 = 0.49).
This suggests that EIT, using our novel impedance metric, has the potential to serve as an alternative technology to standard PFTs for assessing pulmonary function in patients with ALS, offering new metrics of disease status for those with bulbar weakness.

© 2020 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine.