Tobacco use disorder is a leading threat to the health of persons with HIV (PWH) on antiretroviral treatment and identifying optimal treatment approaches to promote abstinence is critical. We describe the rationale, aims, and design for a new study, “A SMART Approach to Treating Tobacco Use Disorder in Persons with HIV (SMARTTT),” a sequential multiple assignment randomized trial.
In HIV clinics within three health systems in the northeastern United States, PWH with tobacco use disorder are randomized to nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) with or without contingency management (NRT vs. NRT + CM). Participants with response (defined as exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO)-confirmed smoking abstinence at week 12), continue the same treatment for another 12 weeks. Participants with non-response, are re-randomized to either switch medications from NRT to varenicline or intensify treatment to a higher CM reward schedule. Interventions are delivered by clinical pharmacists embedded in HIV clinics. The primary outcome is eCO-confirmed smoking abstinence; secondary outcomes include CD4 cell count, HIV viral load suppression, and the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) Index 2.0 score (a validated measure of morbidity and mortality based on laboratory data). Consistent with a hybrid type 1 effectiveness-implementation design and grounded in implementation science frameworks, we will conduct an implementation-focused process evaluation in parallel. Study protocol adaptations related to the COVID-19 pandemic have been made.
SMARTTT is expected to generate novel findings regarding the impact, cost, and implementation of an adaptive clinical pharmacist-delivered intervention involving medications and CM to promote smoking abstinence among PWH. ClinicalTrials.govidentifier:NCT04490057.

Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.