Altered performance monitoring is implicated in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of electrophysiological correlates of performance monitoring (error-related negativity, ERN; error positivity, Pe; feedback-related negativity, FRN; feedback-P3) in individuals with OCD, GTS, ADHD or autism compared to control participants, or associations between correlates and symptoms/traits of these conditions. Meta-analyses on 97 studies (5890 participants) showed increased ERN in OCD (Hedge’s g = 0.54[CIs:0.44,0.65]) and GTS (g = 0.99[CIs:0.05,1.93]). OCD also showed increased Pe (g = 0.51[CIs:0.21,0.81]) and FRN (g = 0.50[CIs:0.26,0.73]). ADHD and autism showed reduced ERN (ADHD: g=-0.47[CIs:-0.67,-0.26]; autism: g=-0.61[CIs:-1.10,-0.13]). ADHD also showed reduced Pe (g=-0.50[CIs:-0.69,-0.32]). These findings suggest overlap in electrophysiological markers of performance monitoring alterations in four common neurodevelopmental conditions, with increased amplitudes of the markers in OCD and GTS and decreased amplitudes in ADHD and autism. Implications of these findings in terms of shared and distinct performance monitoring alterations across these neurodevelopmental conditions are discussed. PROSPERO pre-registration code: CRD42019134612.
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