The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to present an overview of the role of Ac-PSMA (prostate-specific membrane antigen)-targeted alpha therapy (TAT) as a salvage treatment option in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.
A systematic literature review was performed in databases such as Medline, Embase, PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials, and the website; until December 2020. The study was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. All original articles, including retrospective, prospective, hand-searched articles, and clinical trials, were searched, and appropriate data were included for the analysis. The study’s primary endpoint assessed therapeutic efficacy by biochemical response assessment criteria (any prostate-specific antigen [PSA] decline and >50% PSA decline from the baseline) after Ac-PSMA-TAT. The secondary endpoints included assessing overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), molecular response, and therapy-related adverse events across all the studies. The values were expressed as pooled proportions and demonstrated graphically by forest plots using the random-effects model.
After the data extraction and filtration process, a total of three publications, including 141 patients, were included for the final analysis. The pooled proportion of patients demonstrating any PSA decline and greater than 50% PSA decline were 83% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 77%-89%) and 59% (95% CI: 42%-76%), respectively. The pooled proportions for OS was 81% (95% CI: 74%-89%). The pooled proportion of patients who have shown complete molecular response are 17% (95% CI: 5%-29%). The median PFS was 12 months (interquartile range: 8.2-14.4 months). Across the studies, the most common side effects from Ac-PSMA-617 TAT were xerostomia/dry mouth, which pertained to Gr I-II in 63.1% (89 of 141), followed by fatigue in 44.5% (45 of 101) of patients. Grade I-II and III anemia was noted in 48.5% (49 of 101) and 6% (6 of 101), respectively. Grade III leukopenia and thrombocytopenia were negligible: 0.9% (1 of 101) and 0.9% (1 of 101), respectively. Similarly, grade III nephrotoxicity was also observed only in 5 of 101 (5%) patients.
Treatment with Ac-PSMA-617 TAT demonstrated biochemical response, improved survival, caused low treatment-related toxicity proving a promising salvage treatment option in mCRPC patients.

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