The major event in the development of diabetes-related blindness and vision impairment is the onset of retinal cell damage. Overall awareness of insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF2) mechanisms emphasizes its protective behavior in retinal cells that help to provide new information about the development of treatment for retinal complications.
This study analyzes the effect of in vitro changes associated with the cell survival and rescue mechanism in IGF2 inhibition and activation using chromeceptin and IGF2 peptides in ARPE-19 cells cultured in high glucose conditions.
Cell death was induced using high glucose (15 mmol/L), IGF2 inhibition was done using chromeceptin (1 µM) (Sigma Aldrich, Saint Louis, MO, USA), and IGF2 activation was done using IGF2 peptide (10 ng/mL). The cells were analyzed for changes in cell proliferation, apoptosis markers, antioxidant molecules, and alteration of cytokines.
The study demonstrated that cells lacking IGF2 exhibited a significant increase in reactive oxygen levels with apoptosis patterns. Also, gene expression analysis by qRT-PCR demonstrated a significant increase in Yes-associated protein 1, CDK2, TNF-α, and BIRC5 genes in cells under high glucose stress and IGF inhibition compared to control. Further, the cytokine analysis also revealed that cells devoid of IGF2 activated an increase in cytokines such as IL-8, CX43, ICAM-1, IL-17, CCL3, and MCP-1 and decreased paraoxonase compared to normal control cells. On the other hand, ARPE-19 cells grown in high glucose shows that IGF2 increases the survival genes with reduced levels of inflammatory cytokines.
The finding of the investigation, therefore, shows that the use of IGF2 activators may prevent the progression of ocular dysfunction in the control of diabetes-related complications.

© 2021 S. Karger AG, Basel.