Ammonium acid urate (AAU) crystals are rare in industrialized countries. Furthermore, the number of children with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) who develop severe acute kidney injury (AKI) after hospitalization is small. We encountered two patients with AKI caused by AAU crystals during the recovery phase of DKA upon admission. They were diagnosed with severe DKA and hyperuricemia. Their urine volume decreased and AKI developed several days after hospitalization; however, acidosis improved in both patients. Urine sediment analysis revealed AAU crystals. They were treated with urine alkalization and diuretics. Excretion of ammonia in the urine and urine pH levels increased after treatment of DKA, which resulted in the formation of AAU crystals. In patients with severe DKA, the urine and urine sediment should be carefully examined as AAU can form in the recovery phase of DKA.
Ammonium acid urate crystals could be formed in the recovery phase of diabetic ketoacidosis. Diabetic ketoacidosis patients may develop acute kidney injury caused by ammonium acid urate crystals. Urine and urine sediment should be carefully checked in patients with severe DKA who present with hyperuricemia and volume depletion.