Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a cardiovascular disease that is produced due to a deficiency of oxygen generating irreversible damage in the heart muscle. In diagnosis, electrocardiogram (ECG) investigation has been the main method but is insufficient, so approaches like the measurement of biomarkers levels in plasma or saliva have become one of the most commonly applied strategies for prognosis of AMI, as some of them are specifically related to a heart attack. Many tests are carrying on to determine biological markers changes, but usually, they present disadvantages related to time consumption and laborious work. To overcome the issues, researchers around the world have been developing different ways to enhance detection through the use of biosensors. These diagnostic devices have a biological sensing element associated to a physicochemical transducer that can be made from different materials and configurations giving place to different kinds of detection: Electrical/Electrochemical, Optical and Mechanical. In this review, the authors presents relevant investigations related to the most important biomarkers and biosensors used for their detection having in mind the nanotechnology participation in the process through the application of nanostructures as a good choice for device configuration.
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