Adenosine, an endogenous purine nucleoside, is a well-known actor of the immune system and the inflammatory response both in physiologic and pathologic conditions. By acting upon particular, G-protein coupled adenosine receptors, i.e., A1, A2- a & b, and A3 receptors mediate a variety of intracellular and immunomodulatory actions. Several studies have elucidated Adenosine’s effect and its up-and downstream molecules and enzymes on the anti-tumor response against several types of cancers. We have also targeted a couple of molecules to manipulate this pathway and get the immune system’s desired response in our previous experiences. Besides, the outgrowth of the studies on ocular Adenosine in recent years has significantly enhanced the knowledge about Adenosine and its role in ocular immunology and the inflammatory response of the eye. Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness globally, and the recent application of Adenosine and its derivatives has shown the critical role of the adenosine pathway in its pathophysiology. However, despite a very promising background, the phase III clinical trial of Trabodenoson failed to achieve the non-inferiority goals of the study. In this review, we discuss different aspects of the abovementioned pathway in ophthalmology and ocular immunology; following a brief evaluation of the current immunotherapeutic strategies, we try to elucidate the links between cancer immunotherapy and glaucoma in order to introduce novel therapeutic targets for glaucoma.
Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.