Severe community-acquired pneumonia (SCAP) is a critical disorder with high morbidity and mortality, usually manifested as acute respiratory failure and septic shock generally caused by exaggerated systemic inflammation. Interleukin-32 (IL-32), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, has been reported involved in various infectious diseases. We nvestigated the efficacy of the plasma IL-32 as a biomarker for evaluating the severity and clinical outcomes in SCAP patients.
A total of 124 adult immunocompetent SCAP patients and 87 healthy controls were enrolled in this observational, prospective cohort study.
We found that PBMCs IL-32 mRNA and plasma IL-32 concentrations on admission of SCAP patients were significantly higher than healthy controls. Plasma IL-32 concentrations closely correlated with increasing severity scores, the need for vasopressor support or invasive mechanical ventilation but not with the etiology. The area under the curve (AUC) for predicting 30-day mortality using IL-32 was 0.812, is superior to WBC and CRP. Incorporation of IL-32 with the severity scores were shown to improve the prognostic accuracy considerably. Furthermore, the 30-day cumulative survival rate in high IL-32 concentration group was significantly lower than that in the low concentration group. In a multivariate Cox regression analysis, higher IL-32 concentration and higher PSI score were recognized as the independent risk factors for survival, and the relative risks were 2.568 and 3.362, respectively.
Admission IL-32 concentration closely related to the severity and mortality of SCAP, and it may be served as a potential biomarker to help clinical judgment and management.

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