Gliomas are the most common malignant primary brain tumor, and their prognosis is extremely poor. Radiotherapy is an important treatment for glioma patients, but the changes caused by radiotherapy have brought difficulties in clinical image evaluation because differentiating glioma recurrence from post-radiotherapy changes including pseudo-progression (PD) and radiation necrosis (RN) remains a challenge. Therefore, accurate and reliable imaging evaluation is very important for making clinical decisions. In recent years, advanced multimodal imaging techniques have been applied to achieve the goal of better differentiating glioma recurrence from post-radiotherapy changes for minimizing errors associated with interpretation of treatment effects. In this review, we discuss the recent applications of advanced multimodal imaging such as diffusion MRI sequences, amide proton transfer MRI sequences, perfusion MRI sequences, MR spectroscopy and multinuclides PET/CT in the evaluation of post-radiotherapy treatment response in glioma patients and highlight their potential role in differentiating post-radiotherapy changes from glioma recurrence.
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