Clinical and benchtop studies suggest that chronic kidney disease (CKD) alters both renal and nonrenal clearance of drugs. Although studies have documented that the accumulating uremic toxins in the body under CKD conditions are humoral factors that alter the expression and/or activity of drug transporters, the specific process is poorly understood. In this study, we found that advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs), which are a modified protein uremic toxin, could upregulate efflux transporters, including P-glycoprotein (ABCB1), multi-drug resistance-associated protein 2 (ABCC2) and breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2) expression in CKD rat models and in HepG2 cells. Our research shows that renal function decline was associated with the accumulation of AOPPs in serum and the upregulation of efflux transporters in the liver in two rat models of CKD. In HepG2 cells, AOPPs significantly increased the expression of efflux transporters in a dose- and time-dependent manner and upregulated the mRNA expression, protein expression and activity of efflux transporters, but bovine serum albumin (BSA), a synthetic precursor of AOPPs, had no effect. This effect correlated with AOPPs activation of the nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2)-mediated signaling pathway. Further investigation of the regulation of Nrf-2 by AOPPs revealed that ML385 and siNrf-2 abolished the upregulatory effects of AOPPs. These findings suggest that AOPPs upregulate ABCB1, ABCG2 and ABCC2 through Nrf-2 signaling pathways. Protein uremic toxins, such as AOPPs, may modify the nonrenal clearance of drugs in patients with CKD through effects on drug transporters.
Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier B.V.