Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a leading cause of morbidity and disability in the world. Over the past few decades, the exact molecular mechanisms describing secondary, persistent injuries, as well as primary and transient injuries, have attracted massive attention to the clinicians and researchers. Recent investigations have distinctly shown the critical roles of innate and adaptive immune responses in regulating sterile neuroinflammation and functional outcomes after SCI. In past years, some promising advances in immunotherapeutic options have efficaciously been identified for the treatment of SCI. In our narrative review, we have mainly focused on the new therapeutic strategies such as the maturation and apoptosis of immune cells by several agents, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as well as multi-factor combination therapy, which have recently provided novel ideas and prospects for the future treatment of SCI. This article also illustrates the latest progress in clarifying the potential roles of innate and adaptive immune responses in SCI, the progression and specification of prospective immunotherapy and outstanding issues in the area.
Copyright © 2020 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.