The growing interest on how peri-‑operative interventions, especially regional anesthesia, during cancer surgery can alter oncological outcome increasing disease free survival is probably responsible for the birth of the new subspecialty called onco-anesthesia. A paradigm shift in the concept of anesthetic management has occurred recently owing to the innumerable diverse revelations from the ongoing research in this field.
Long lasting but reversible epigenetic changes can occur due to surgical stress and perioperative anesthetic medications. The exact relationship between these factors and tumor biology is being studied further. A popular topic under research now is the influence of regional anesthesia on cancer recurrence. Combining nerve blocks with total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) brings down the requirement of opioids and volatile anesthetic agents implicated in cancer recurrence. The study of mechanism of pain at the molecular level has led to the discovery of novel modes of prevention of chronic post-surgical pain. Newer combination aggressive treatment therapies -intraoperative chemotherapy and radiotherapy, isolated limb perfusion, photodynamic therapy and robotic surgery require specialized anesthetic management. The COVID pandemic introduced new guidelines for safe management of oncosurgical patients .Use of genomic mapping to personalize pain management will be the breakthrough of the decade.
The discovery that anesthetic strategy could have significant oncological sequel is a quantum leap forward. Avoiding some anesthetic medications may decrease cancer recurrence. Comprehensive cancer care and translational research will pave the way to uncover safe anesthetic practices.

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