Aspergillus is a mould that is ubiquitous in nature and may lead to a variety of infectious and allergic diseases depending on the host’s immune status or pulmonary structure. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis occurs primarily in patients with severe immunodeficiency. The significance of this infection has dramatically increased with growing numbers of patients with impaired immune state associated with the management of malignancy, organ transplantation, autoimmune and inflammatory conditions; critically ill patients appear to be at an increased risk as well. The introduction of new noninvasive tests, combined with more effective and better-tolerated antifungal agents, has resulted in lower mortality rates associated with this infection.
Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis is a locally invasive disease described in patients with chronic lung disease or mild immunodeficiency. Recently, the European Society for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases provided a more robust sub-classification of this entity that allows for a straightforward approach to diagnosis and management. Allergic bronchopulmonaryaspergillosis, a hypersensitivity reaction to Aspergillus antigens, is generally seen in patients with atopy, asthma or cystic fibrosis. This review provides an update on the evolving epidemiology and risk factors of the major manifestations of Aspergillus lung disease and the clinical manifestations that should prompt the clinician to consider these conditions. It also details the role of noninvasive tests in the diagnosis of Aspergillus related lung diseases and advances in the management of these disorders.