Sepsis is a set of serious manifestations throughout the body produced by an infection, leading to changes that compromise cellular homeostasis and can result in dysfunction of the central nervous system. The elderly have a higher risk of developing sepsis than younger peoples. Under the influence of inflammatory mediators and oxidizing agents released in the periphery as a result of the infectious stimulus, changes occur in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, with neutrophil infiltration, the passage of toxic compounds, activation of microglia and production of reactive species that results in potentiation of neuroimmune response, with the progression of neuronal damage and neuroinflammation. The objective of this study is to compare BBB permeability and the development of oxidative stress in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of young and old rats submitted to polymicrobial sepsis induction. Male Wistar rats grouped into sham (60d), sham (210d), cecal ligation and perforation (CLP) (60d) and CLP (210d) with n = 16 per experimental group were evaluated using the CLP technique to induce sepsis. The brain regions were collected at 24 h after sepsis induction to determine BBB permeability, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity as marker of neutrophil activation, nitrite/nitrate (N/N) levels as marker of reactive nitrogen species, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances as marker of lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation as marker of protein oxidation, and activity of antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT). There was an increase in the BBB permeability in the CLP groups, and this was enhanced with aging in both brain region. MPO activity in the brain regions increased in the CLP groups, along with a hippocampal increase in the CLP 210d group compared to the 60d group. The concentration of N/N in the brain region was increased in the CLP groups. The damage to lipids and proteins in the two structures was enhanced in the CLP groups, while only lipid peroxidation was higher in the prefrontal cortex of the CLP 210d group compared to the 60d. CAT activity in the hippocampus was decreased in both CLP groups, and this was also influenced by age, whereas in the prefrontal cortex there was only a decrease in CAT in the CLP 60d group compared to the sham 60d. These findings indicate that aging potentiated BBB permeability in sepsis, which possibly triggered an increase in neutrophil infiltration and, consequently, an increase in oxidative stress.
Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier Inc.

References

PubMed