With the establishment of antiretroviral treatment (ART) programs in low- and middle-income countries, people with HIV (PWH) in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) are living longer, subsequently developing chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Few studies focus on the impact of aging among older LAC PWH. This systematic review aims to fill this information gap and understand the burden of aging with HIV in LAC. We identified peer-reviewed literature published in English, Spanish, or Portuguese from several databases to assess currently available evidence on the burden of aging with HIV in LAC and selected six common NCDs found in older PWH (cardiovascular disease [CVD], bone and musculoskeletal [MSK] disorders, cancer, renal disease, neurocognitive impairment [NCI], and depression).
Of the 5942 publications reviewed, only 53 articles were found with populations 40 years and older or age-related findings (27 CVD, 13 NCI or depression, 6 MSK disorders, 4 renal disease, 3 cancer). Most (79%) publications were from Brazil with few longitudinal studies on aging with HIV. Prevalence of illnesses such as CVD, NCI, depression, or osteoporosis varied widely depending on the screening instrument utilized and geographic population surveyed. Age was a significant predictor of comorbidity in nearly all studies. Our results demonstrate the need for longitudinal studies and validated screening instruments appropriate for use among PWH in LAC. Understanding the mechanisms behind aging in HIV and the roles of sociocultural factors and genetic diversity specific to LAC is needed to appropriately manage chronic comorbidities as PWH age.