Albrecht von Graefe (1828-1870) is the founder of this archive (1854) and the founder of modern ophthalmology. In 2020, the anniversary of his death will be observed for the 150th time. The “German Ophthalmological Society” (DOG), also a Graefe foundation (1857), has therefore proclaimed a “Graefe year.” In Berlin, his hometown, several Graefe-monuments exist. Ophthalmology owes Albrecht von Graefe numerous first discoveries such as excavation of the optic disc in glaucoma (1855), iridectomy in glaucoma (1857), or central artery occlusion (1859). But his after-effects are not only based on his clinical and scientific merits but also on his extraordinary, fascinating personality, which can be characterized by his spirit of internationality, friendship, self-criticism, love of truth, and modesty. Graefe became a myth not only because of his early death but also because he had apart from great successes, to accept human misfortunes at the same time. Albrecht von Graefe can be regarded as the conscience of ophthalmology in Germany.