Allograft artery mycotic aneurysm (MA) represents a rare but life-threatening complication of kidney transplantation. Graftectomy is widely considered the safest option. Due to the rarity of the disease and the substantial risk of fatal consequences, experience with conservative strategies is limited. To date, only a few reports on surgical repair have been published. We describe a case of true MA successfully managed by aneurysm resection and arterial re-anastomosis.
An 18-year-old gentleman, on post-operative day 70 after deceased donor kidney transplantation, presented with malaise, low urinary output, and worsening renal function. Screening organ preservation fluid cultures, collected at the time of surgery, were positive for C. Doppler ultrasound and contrast-enhanced computer tomography showed a 4-cm-sized, saccular aneurysm of the iuxta-anastomotic segment of the allograft artery, suspicious for MA. The lesion was wide-necked and extended to the distal bifurcation of the main arterial branch, thus preventing endovascular stenting and embolization. After multidisciplinary discussion, the patient underwent surgical exploration, aneurysm excision, and re-anastomosis between the stump of the allograft artery and the internal iliac artery. The procedure was uneventful. Histology and microbiology evaluation of the surgical specimen confirmed the diagnosis of MA caused by infection. Three years after the operation, the patient is doing very well with excellent allograft function and no signs of recurrent disease.
Surgical repair represents a feasible option in carefully selected patients with allograft artery MA. Anti-fungal prophylaxis is advised when preservation fluid cultures are positive.

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