The bone scan index (BSI), initially introduced for metastatic prostate cancer, quantifies the osseous tumor load from planar bone scans. Following the basic idea of radiomics, this method incorporates specific deep-learning techniques (artificial neural network) in its development to provide automatic calculation, feature extraction, and diagnostic support. As its performance in tumor entities, not including prostate cancer, remains unclear, our aim was to obtain more data about this aspect. The results of BSI evaluation of bone scans from 951 consecutive patients with different tumors were retrospectively compared to clinical reports (bone metastases, yes/no). Statistical analysis included entity-specific receiver operating characteristics to determine optimized BSI cut-off values. In addition to prostate cancer (cut-off = 0.27%, sensitivity (SN) = 87%, specificity (SP) = 99%), the algorithm used provided comparable results for breast cancer (cut-off 0.18%, SN = 83%, SP = 87%) and colorectal cancer (cut-off = 0.10%, SN = 100%, SP = 90%). Worse performance was observed for lung cancer (cut-off = 0.06%, SN = 63%, SP = 70%) and renal cell carcinoma (cut-off = 0.30%, SN = 75%, SP = 84%). The algorithm did not perform satisfactorily in melanoma (SN = 60%). For most entities, a high negative predictive value (NPV ≥ 87.5%, melanoma 80%) was determined, whereas positive predictive value (PPV) was clinically not applicable. Automatically determined BSI showed good sensitivity and specificity in prostate cancer and various other entities. Particularly, the high NPV encourages applying BSI as a tool for computer-aided diagnostic in various tumor entities.

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