To collate and analyze the screening results of high-risk lung cancer populations in communities in Nanchang from 2018 to 2019, and to explore the lung-positive nodules and risk factors for lung cancer. Data of the screening subjects in 8 administrative districts and 15 street health service centers in Nanchang city, Jiangxi province from November 2018 to October 2019 were collected, people at high risk of lung cancer was assessed, clinical screening of high-risk groups of lung cancer was conducted by low-dose helical computed tomography (LDCT), and risk factors for suspected lung cancer and lung-positive nodules were analyzed. Of the 25 871 people participated in screening, 5 220 were at high risk for lung cancer and 15 374 without other malignant tumors were at high risk. There were 2 417 cases participated in clinical LDCT screening, including 193 cases of lung-positive nodules, 67 cases of suspected lung cancer, 912 cases of other lung diseases, the positive rate of lung cancer or lung-positive nodules was 10.76% (260/2 417). Univariate analysis showed that age, coarse grain intake, oil intake, housing heating, passive smoking, alcohol consumption and mental trauma were associated with positive pulmonary nodules or lung cancer (all <0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that gender, age, housing heating, smoking and drinking were related to the occurrence of lung nodules or lung cancer (all <0.05). Men are more likely to develop lung cancer or lung-positive nodules than women. The age is an independent risk factor for lung-positive nodules or lung cancer. In a certain range, age will increase the incidence of lung cancer, housing heating may be the protective factor for lung cancer, while smoking and drinking are risk factors.