To describe a modified surgical approach with anterior vitrectomy, phacoemulsification (phaco) cataract extraction and irido-zonulo-hyaloid-vitrectomy (IZHV) in protracted acute angle closure crisis (AACC).
Non-comparative, retrospective case series including 21 eyes in 19 consecutive cases of protracted AACC, which persists for at least 7 days despite maximal medical and laser therapies, were included in this study. All patients underwent a modified surgical procedure with anterior vitrectomy, phaco cataract extraction, IOL implantation, goniosynechialysis (GSL) and IZHV, using modest phaco dynamic parameters with intraocular pressure (IOP) set at 30 mmHg through the procedure using Centurion® Vision System equipped with active fluidics while the anterior vitrectomy was set at 4000 or 5000 rpm. IOP and anterior chamber space were maintained through the procedure using ophthalmic viscosurgical device (OVD) injected through paracentesis whenever the Phaco or I/A probe was withdrawn from within the anterior chamber. Medical history, visual acuity (VA), IOP and anterior and posterior segment findings were recorded and compared before and after surgical treatment.
The average age of all patients was 60.05 years old, while the average period of persistent AACC was 20.05 days. Preoperatively, the average IOP of all included eyes was 44.40 ± 8.42 mmHg despite maximal topical and systemic anti-glaucoma medications and/or laser surgeries, while the average VA was 1.46 ± 0.88 (log MAR). Postoperatively, IOP was well controlled in all patients with an average IOP at 12.06 ± 3.07 mmHg without any anti-glaucoma medications at follow-ups, which was decreased significantly from that in preoperative measurements (P < 0.001). Visual acuity was improved significantly at final follow-up with an average postoperative VA at 0.74 ± 0.77 (log MAR, P < 0.001). Anterior segment inflammation was surprisingly mild with no or minimal inflammatory cells or exudates. Anterior segment configuration was resolved in all the cases. There was no recurrent IOP spike, anterior chamber shallowing or severe complications during an average follow-up of 5.38 months (ranging from 3 to 6 months).
Protracted AACC is a complex situation while a modified surgical strategy of anterior vitrectomy, phaco cataract extraction and IZHV provides a safe and efficient solution.