This study was aimed to investigate the effect of weight loss by bariatric surgery on the level of anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) in morbidly obese female patients with or without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This prospective study includes 70 females, obese, and fertile patients of reproductive age. All patients were evaluated to determine the changes in weight, body mass index (BMI), serum AMH, and other biochemical parameters at the end of six months. The mean levels of the preop and postop AMH were 1.66±0.87 ng/ml and 5.99±1.39 ng/ml in the PCOS group; 1.35±0.76 ng/ml and 6.23±1.47 ng/ml in the non-PCOS group, respectively. The postop AMH levels were significantly higher than the preop levels for both groups (p<0.001). There were significant differences in the level of glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglyceride, total cholesterol, hemoglobin A1c, HOMA-IR, insulin between preop and postop 6th month. A negative correlation was found between postop AMH and body weight in all patients (r=-0.337, p=0.031). Postop AMH levels were negatively correlated with postop BMI levels in the non-PCOS patient group (r=-0.408, p=0.043). No significant difference was observed between the PCOS and non-PCOS groups in terms of all the parameters examined. In conclusion, our study suggests that the significantly increased AMH levels by losing weight with bariatric surgery in patients with morbid obesity with and without PCOS may indicate the improvement of fertilization potential. It could be considered when evaluating fertility in patients with morbid obesity.
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