Cervical cancer is the fourth most common malignant tumor in the world, for advanced cervical cancer, more than 30% of patients continue to have tumor and relapse or metastasis after the traditional treatment (concurrent chemoradiotherapy), and the response rate of immune checkpoint inhibitor (PD-1) is less 15%, so additional approaches are required. In situ vaccine is a very promising immunotherapy strategy. In the preclinical study, the combination of CPG and anti-Ox40 antibody can completely resolve injection site tumours and distant tumours and leads to the recovery of most mice with lymphoma. However, our early exploration process found that the effect of CpG + OX40 in the treatment of advanced cervical cancer is not ideal. Hence, we explored the anti-tumor effect of CpG + OX40 combined with anti-angiogenic therapy for the first time. The results showed that the combination significantly inhibited the proliferation of primary and secondary tumor volume and prolonged the survival time of mice, compared with the control group, CD3+, CD4 + and CD8 + T cells in the combined group showed an increasing trend. In addition, in terms of metabolism, the anti-vascular effect of anlotinib can significantly reduce the blood supply and metabolic level of tumor, the expression of Ki67 and CD31 in the control group was significantly higher than that in each administration group. In conclusion, our preclinical research results showed that the combination of in situ vaccine and anti-angiogenic therapy has a good anti-tumor effect, and may potentially offer an effective treatment option for patients with advanced cervical cancer.Copyright © 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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