Both in hospitals and outpatient settings, fewer fluoroquinolones have been prescribed in Germany in recent years. The consumption of cephalosporins also decreased somewhat in favor of penicillin derivatives. The aminoglycosides, which have only rarely been prescribed, can now be used again as a suitable alternative – but only parenterally – due to their relatively favorable activity and low resistance rates among typical urinary tract infection pathogens. In acute severe infection such as sepsis, addition, e. g. of tobramycin, to a suitable betalactam of a single dose has been discussed as a useful option, but the evidence for such a recommendation is weak. There is little news about the rational use of antibiotics in hematology-oncology patients. In the case of fever and neutropenia, the initial empirical regimens of choice remain piperacillin-tazobactam or a pseudomonas-active carbapenem as monotherapy. These betalactams should be given with extended infusion times, e. g. over 4 hours. Linezolid should be considered as a reserve drug and not be used empirically, but only in targeted therapy. With regard to an alleged penicillin allergy, the risk of true allergic reactions can be differentiated by careful taking of the history; on that ground patient subgroups can be defined that may be re-exposed without further allergological examinations.Thieme. All rights reserved.