We compared influenza antibody titers among vaccinated and unvaccinated pregnant and non-pregnant women.
During 1st June- 30th September 2018, four groups of cohort participants-vaccinated pregnant, unvaccinated pregnant, vaccinated non-pregnant, and unvaccinated non-pregnant women were selected by matching age, gestational age, and the week of vaccination. Serum antibody titers against each strain of 2018 Southern Hemisphere inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine (IIV3) were assessed by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay on Day 0 (pre-vaccination) and Day 28 (one month post-vaccination) serum samples. Geometric mean titer (GMT), GMT ratio (GMR), seroconversion (defined as ≥4 fold increase in HI titer), and seroprotection (i.e. HI titer ≥1:40) were compared across the study groups using multilevel regression analyses, controlling for previous year vaccination from medical records and baseline antibody levels.
A total of 132 participants were enrolled in the study (33 in each of the four study groups). The baseline GMTs for influenza A(H1N1), A(H3N2), and B vaccine strains were not significantly different among all four groups (all p-values >0.05). After one month, both vaccinated groups had significantly higher GMT, GMR, seroconversion, and seroprotection than their unvaccinated controls (all p-values 0.05).
The 2018 seasonal IIV3 was immunogenic against all three vaccine strains and pregnancy did not seem to alter the immune response to IIV3. These findings support the current influenza vaccination recommendations for pregnant women.