To identify significant bleeding complications following spinal interventions in patients taking medications with antiplatelet or anticoagulation effect.
Retrospective chart review of a 12-month period.
Outpatient academic medical practice.
Injections during outpatient interventional spine clinical encounters, including 14 cervical transforaminal epidural steroid injections, 26 cervical medial branch blocks, seven cervical radiofrequency neurotomies, three cervical facet joint injections, 88 lumbar transforaminal epidural steroid injections, 66 lumbosacral medial branch blocks, 18 lumbosacral radiofrequency neurotomies, 13 lumbar facet joint injections, one caudal epidural steroid injection, 11 sacral transforaminal epidural steroid injections, and 32 sacroiliac joint injections.
Epidural hematoma or other serious bleeding.
In this cohort of 275 consecutive encounters with available records in which patients underwent a spinal injection while continuing medications with antiplatelet or anticoagulant effect, zero of the 275 clinical encounters (0%, 95% confidence interval = 0-1.4%) resulted in epidural hematoma or other serious bleeding. For antiplatelet medication, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were continued in 102 procedures, aspirin in 142, clopidogrel in 21, and meloxicam and/or Celebrex in 81; for anticoagulation medication, warfarin was continued in four procedures, apixaban in six, dabigatran in one, and fondaparinux in two. Of note, one patient suffered a deep vein thrombosis, which was identified at two-week follow-up despite continuing aspirin therapy.
This cohort adds to the growing evidence that the risk of serious bleeding complications from select spine interventions while continuing medications with antiplatelet or anticoagulant effect appears low.
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