In patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), selecting an antithrombotic regimen requires balancing risks of ischemic cardiac events, stroke, and bleeding.
We studied 467 patients with AF undergoing PCI in the time period from December 2015 to July 2018 identified via a chart audit by 47 Canadian cardiologists in the CONNECT AF+PCI (the ordinated ational etwork to ngage Interventional ardiologists in the Antithrombotic reatment of Patients With trial ibrillation Undergoing ercutaneous oronary ntervention) study, to determine patterns of initial antithrombotic therapy selection.
The median (25th, 75th percentile) CHADS score was 2 (1, 3), and PCI was performed in the setting of acute coronary syndrome in 62.1%. Triple antithrombotic therapy (TAT) was the initial treatment in 62.7%, dual-pathway therapy in 25.7%, and dual antiplatelet therapy in 11.6%, with a temporal increase in use of dual-pathway therapy during the course of the study; median intended TAT duration was 1 (1, 3) month. Compared with patients selected for TAT, patients selected for dual-pathway therapy were less likely to have prior myocardial infarction (35.8% vs 25.8%,  = 0.045) and prior PCI (33.8% vs 23.3%,  = 0.03), and they received shorter total length of stents (38 [23, 56] vs 30 [20, 46] mm,  = 0.03). Patients selected for dual-pathway therapy had a higher prevalence of prior stroke/transient ischemic attack (13.0% vs 23.3%,  = 0.01). There was no difference in prevalence of anemia (21.5% vs 25.8%,  = 0.30). Use of dual-pathway therapy was similar among patients with acute coronary syndrome and those with stable disease (24.1% vs 28.2%,  = 0.32).
Approximately one-quarter of AF patients undergoing PCI are treated with dual-pathway therapy in Canadian practice, with its use increasing during the studied period. Patients selected for dual-pathway therapy have less-complex coronary disease history and intervention.

© 2021 The Authors.