Anxiety and depression in Parkinson’s disease (PD) are often unrecognized, partially due to a complex relationship with sleep disorders and other PD-related symptoms.
AIM: To gain more insight in anxiety, depression and sleep disorders in PD, their reciprocal interaction and relationship with other (non)motor symptoms.
METHOD: With three epidemiological studies in this thesis article we describe: the symptom dimensions of anxiety, motor symptoms and autonomic failure; predictors of the course of anxiety; and the temporal relationship between anxiety, depression and insomnia in PD.
RESULTS: Anxiety in PD has one affective and various somatic symptom dimensions. There is a symptomatic overlap between anxiety and symptoms of motor and autonomic dysfunctions. Anxiety, depression and impulsive-compulsive behaviors in de novo PD show a parallel course. Cognitive dysfunctions and REM-sleep behaviour disorder are risk factors for anxiety in PD patients. The relationship between insomnia and anxiety and depression is bi-directional.
CONCLUSION: There is an overlap, co-morbidity and interaction between anxiety, depression, sleep disorders and (non)motor symptoms, which warrants a multi-disciplinary approach to PD. Sleep disorders and cognitive dysfunctions may provide starting points for treatment and preventions of anxiety in PD.