Cardiovascular involvement in SARS-CoV-2 infection has emerged as one of viral major clinical features during actual pandemic; limb arterial ischemic events, venous thrombosis, acute myocardial infection and stroke have occurred in patients. Acute aortic conditions have also been described, followed by interesting observations on cases, hypothesis, raised since the emergence of the pandemics.
a review of cases in literature of aortic pathology in patients with clinically suspected/microbiologically confirmed COVID-19 infection has been carried out to analyze anagraphic data, clinical presentation, treatment options and outcome.
17 cases have been included. Mean age of patients was 58.6±15.2years, with a male to female ratio of 12:15 (70.5% vs 29.5%). Comorbidities were reported in 11 cases (64.7%), but in 5 cases (29.4%) no previous pathology was signaled in history. Hypertension was the most frequently reported comorbidity, in 8 cases, (47%), followed by renal pathology (17.6%), coronary artery disease (17.6%), previous aortic surgery (11.7%) and arrhythmia (11.7%); but also cerebrovascular disease, diabetes, autoimmune conditions, previous neoplasia and arrhythmia were reported once each. Fever and thoracic pain were the most frequently reported findings at presentation (8 cases, 47% each), followed by respiratory symptoms (6, 35.2%), low lymphocyte count (17.6%), features related to aneurysm rupture, ischemic stroke, abdominal pain and acute renal insufficiency. Reported aortic pathology included: type A aortic dissection (11 cases; 64.7%); new pathology of previous aortic graft (2 cases, 11.7%); 2 aortitis, one associated with type A aortic dissection; 1 thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysm, 1 ruptured aortic aneurysm and 1 aortic embolizing thrombosis. Open surgery was carried out in 10 cases (58.8%), endovascular treatment in 3 (17.6%). Three patients (17.6%) died before surgery. Exitus was reported in 4 cases, with a total mortality of 23.5%.
Acute aortic events have occurred during pandemic in patients with clinically suspected/microbiologically confirmed COVID-19 infection. Confounding clinical features at presentation, the importance of anamnestic details (as previous vascular graft implant), the observed surgical and post-operatory challenges may suggest the need to consider the implications of the possible link between acute aortic events and SARS-CoV-2 infection, in order to promptly correctly diagnose the patient and respond to specific needs.
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