We are reporting a case series of this rare CHD with its long-term outcome.
We conducted a retrospective analysis of all children from birth to 14 years of age who were admitted between 2001 and 2020 with the diagnosis of aorto-left ventricular tunnel. Demographic, echocardiographic, and perioperative data were collected and reviewed. The pre-operative data were compared with data reviewed on the last outpatient follow-up.
Total of five patients fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Three patients were diagnosed after auscultating an incidental murmur, one had symptoms of congestive heart failure, and one had an abnormal fetal echocardiogram. Echocardiography demonstrated stenotic and regurgitant aortic valve with severely depressed left ventricle function in two patients, one of them with also single left coronary artery. The other three patients had normal aortic valve structure and normal ventricular function. All five patients had surgical repair, two by patch closure at aortic end of aorto-left ventricular tunnel, two by patch closure at both aortic and left ventricular ends, and one by aortic root replacement using a homograft. During follow-up, there was no residual aorto-left ventricular tunnel in any of our five cases, two had moderate aortic regurgitation and one had moderate residual aortic stenosis.
Spectrum of presentation for aorto-left ventricular tunnel varies from an occult lesion to frank left heart failure due to volume or less commonly, pressure overload. Early surgical repair is recommended and is usually associated with complete resolution. Long-term follow-up is recommended for aortic root dilatation and aortic valve competency, as valve function need to be addressed in a timely manner to avoid further complications.