This article presents a novel concept of the evolution and, thus, the pathogenesis of uterine adenomyosis as well as peritoneal and peripheral endometriosis. Presently, no unifying denomination of this nosological entity exists.
An extensive search of the literature on primate evolution was performed. This included comparative functional morphology with special focus on the evolution of the birthing process that fundamentally differs between the haplorrhine primates and most of the other eutherian mammals. The data were correlated with the results of own research on the pathophysiology of human archimetrosis and with the extant presentation of the disease.
The term Archimetrosis is suggested as a denomination of the nosological entity. Archimetrosis occurs in human females and also in subhuman primates. There are common features in the reproductive process of haplorrhine primates such as spontaneous ovulation and corpus luteum formation, spontaneous decidualization and menstruation. These have fused Müllerian ducts resulting in a uterus simplex. Following a usually singleton pregnancy, the fetus is delivered in the skull position. Some of these features are shared by other mammals, but not in that simultaneous fashion. In haplorrhine primates, with the stratum vasculare, a new myometrial layer has evolved during the time of the Cretaceous-Terrestrial Revolution (KTR) that subserves expulsion of the conceptus and externalization of menstrual debris in non-conceptive cycles. Hypercontractility of this layer has evolved as an advantage with respect to the survival of the mother and the birth of a living child during delivery and may be experienced as primary dysmenorrhea during menstruation. It may result in tissue injury by the sheer power of the contractions and possibly by the associated uterine ischemia. Moreover, the lesions at extra-uterine sites appear to be maintained by biomechanical stress.
Since the pathogenesis of archimetrosis is connected with the evolution of the stratum vasculare, tissue injury and repair (TIAR) turns out to be the most parsimonious explanation for the development of the disease based on clinical, experimental and evolutionary evidence. Furthermore, a careful analysis of the published clinical data suggests that, in the risk population with uterine hypercontractility, the disease develops with a yet to be defined latency phase after the onset of the biomechanical injury. This opens a new avenue of prevention of the disease in potentially affected women that we consider to be primarily highly fertile.

© 2022. The Author(s).