To assess the correlation between oral lichen planus (OLP) and viral hepatitis C (HCV).
This retrospective case-control study included a sample of OLP patients in a 3-year interval. The predictor variable was the presence of OLP (yes/no). The outcome variable was the diagnosis of HCV. Other study variables were grouped into demographic, anatomic, and clinical. Descriptive, bi- and multivariate statistics were computed with a significant level at P ≤ 0.05.
The sample was composed of 237 OLP patients (38.8% females) with a mean age of 59.9 ± 17.8 years (range, 17-96), and 948 age- and gender-matched control individuals. The significant higher frequency of HCV was identified in OLP patients (frequency: 19.8% vs. 2.1%; adjusted matched odds ratio [mOR], 9.5; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 5.98 to 15.91; P < 0.0001; Pearson's Phi coefficient [r], 0.307). In the adjusted model, OLP with HCV was associated with 1) oro-cutaneous manifestations (mOR, 17.58; 95% CI, 1.92 to 161.26; P = 0.0059; Bayesian posterior probability of positive test [W], 96%), 2) any intraoral forms other than reticular/plaque-liked forms (mOR, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.04 to 0.18; P < 0.0001; W, 52%), and 3) poor response to topical corticosteroids (mOR, 0.05; 95% CI, 0.02 to 0.16; P < 0.0001; W, 88%).
OLP, especially oro-cutaneous disease or steroid-refractory OLP, are associated with an increased frequency of HCV. Not only HCV screening in OLP patients, but oral examination in HCV patients, are both recommended as primary preventive measures.

Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.